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Chủ đề Environment là chủ đề thường xuyên xuất hiện trong kỳ thi IELTS. Cùng học từ vựng chủ đề này qua bộ từ vựng IELTS Ngọc Bách cực “chất” được LangGo giới thiệu trong bài viết dưới đây nhé! Chúc các bạn học tốt!

1. Từ vựng IELTS Ngọc Bách chủ đề Environemt


  • to discharge chemical waste: xả chất thải hóa học

Meaning: to dispose of waste products from chemical processes.

Example: Nowadays, more and more company and industrial zones have been discharging chemical waste into rivers, causing death to many fish and other aquatic animals.

  • environmental degradation: sự suy thoái môi trường

Meaning: the process or fact of the environment becoming worse

Example: Africa is a continent in which environmental degradation is evident in the spread of deserts and the extinction of animal species.

  • to take action on global warming: hành động về sự nóng lên toàn cầu

Meaning: to do what has to be done on problems related to global warming

Example: There have been numerous international conferences to warn of the dangers, but many governments have refused to take action on global warming.

  • to be bio-degradable: phân hủy sinh học

Meaning: a substance or chemical that can be changed to a natural harmless state by the action of bacteria

Example: Most plastics are not biodegradable, and remain as waste products in the environment for thousands of years.

  • to deplete natural resources: làm cạn kiệt tài nguyên thiên nhiên

Meaning: To reduce the amount of natural resources.

Example: Timber companies must not be allowed to deplete naturalresources by cutting down trees without planting new trees to replace them.

  • ozone layer depletion: suy giảm tầng ozone

Meaning: refers to a steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere

Example: Ozone layer depletion has the effect of allowing harmful radiation from the sun to penetrate the atmosphere and this increases the risk to humans of skin cancer.

  • an ecological crisis: một cuộc khủng hoảng sinh thái

Meaning: a serious situation that occurs when the environment of a species or a population changes in a way that destabilizes its continued survival

Example: Environmental degradation caused by human activity is provoking an ecological crisis which threatens our existence.

  • carbon footprint: lượng carbon dioxide được tạo ra bởi các hoạt động hàng ngày của công ty hoặc con người

Meaning: a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced by the daily activities of a company or person

Example: By providing subsidies, governments should encourage companies to reduce their carbon footprint through energy efficiency or other ‘green measures’.

  • to cut down on emissions: cắt giảm khí thải

Meaning: to reduce the amount of gases sent out into the air

Example: People must be made aware of the need tocut down on emissions from their cars if we are to reduce air pollution.


  • to fight climate change: chống biến đổi khí hậu

Meaning: To try to prevent changes in climate patterns, such as rainfall, temperature and winds.

Example: Unless we consume less of the Earth’s natural resources, it will be

impossible to fight climate change and safeguard our future.

  • to reduce the dependence/reliance on fossil fuels: giảm sự phụ thuộc vào nhiên liệu hóa thạch (than,dầu mỏ…)

Meaning: to decrease people’s consumption of fossil fuels, like oil, coal or gas.

Example: Governments must invest heavily in solar and wind energy projects in order to reduce our dependence/reliance on fossil fuels.

  • to alleviate environmental problems: giảm bớt các vấn đề môi trường

Meaning: to make bad environmental problems less severe

Example: Everyone can assist in the effort to alleviate environmentalproblems in the local community through simple actions such as recycling waste or planting a tree in their garden.

  • to throw one’s weight behind sth: dùng tầm ảnh hưởng và quyền lực của mình để hỗ trợ hoặc nâng đỡ ai/việc gì

Meaning: To use one's influence to help support

Example: The council is to throw its weight behind a campaign to save one of the borough's best-loved beauty spots.

  • to hold sb accountable for + noun/gerund: khiến ai phải chịu trách nhiệm, đổ lỗi cho ai đó

Meaning: to consider someone responsible for something; to blame something on someone

Example: Companies which discharge chemical waste from their factories into the sea or into rivers must be held accountable for their actions and be fined heavily.

  • to achieve sustainable development: đạt được sự phát triển bền vững

Meaning: economic development that is achieved without depleting natural resources

Example: Organic methods must be introduced everywhere in order to achieve sustainable development in agriculture.

  • alternative energy sources: nguồn năng lượng thay thế

Meaning: refers to any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel

Example: Clean energy which does not pollute the Earth can only come from greater reliance on alternative energy sources.

  • food miles: chặng đường mà thức ăn được vận chuyển từ nơi sản xuất đến nơi được tiêu thụ

Meaning: Distance food has to travel between where it is grown or made and where it is consumed

Example: We can all reduce our carbon footprint by flying less, and reduce our food miles by buying local produce.

  • captive breeding: nuôi nhốt

Meaning: the reproduction of animals in confinement, not in their natural habitats.

Example: A successful captive breeding programin zoos has resulted in an increase in the world’s panda population.

  • to stem from: xuất phát từ

Meaning: to be caused by

Example: Scientists say that global warming partly stems from the increase in car exhaust emissions.

  • environmental impact assessment: đánh giá tác động môi trường

Meaning: a study into how a development, like a new road, a new dam or other construction activity will affect the plants, animals and local communities living in an area.

Example: The government must commission an independent environmental impact assessment whenever a new development is proposed.

  • the greenhouse effect: hiệu ứng nhà kính

Meaning: the natural process by which the sun warms the surface of the Earth.

Example: Our burning of fossil fuels is increasing the greenhouse effect

and making the Earth hotter, endangering all life on the planet.

  • global warming: sự nóng lên toàn cầu

Meaning: the process by which the Earth is getting hotter, as a result of the greenhouse effect – in particular the increase in carbon dioxide in the air.

Example: Perhaps the major environmental challenge which faces humanity today is global warming, because it threatens our survival.

  • habitat destruction: hủy hoại môi trường sống

Meaning: the process that occurs when a natural habitat, like a forest or wetland, is changed so dramatically by humans that plants and animals which live there.

Example: The elephant population in the world is declining because of

habitat destruction caused by human exploitation of the environment.

  • endangered species: những loài có nguy có bị tuyệt chủng

Meaning: plants or animals that only exist in very small numbers, so that in future they may disappear forever

Example: One example of an endangered species is the lowland gorilla, which has almost disappeared as a result of the destruction of its forest habitat.

  • on the brink of extinction: trên bờ vực tuyệt chủng

Meaning: an animal or plant which has almost disappeared from the planet Example: Before the captive breeding program in zoos, the giant panda was on the brink of extinction

  • renewable energy: năng lượng tái tạo

Meaning: energy is renewable when it source, like the sun or wind, cannot be exhausted or can easily be replaced (like wood, as we can plant trees for energy)

Example: More funding is required from government funds to help companies to develop renewable energy, such as companies which produce solar panels for buildings.

  • wind farms: các trang trại gió

Meaning: an area of land on which there are a lot of windmills or wind turbines for producing electricity

Example: Wind farms should be constructed in mountainous areas or in the sea, close to land.

  • environmentally friendly: thân thiện với môi trường

Meaning: behavior or products that do not harm the environment Example: We can help to protect the environment by using detergents and cosmetics that are environmentally friendly.

  • toxic waste: chất thải độc hại

Meaning: poisonous, unwanted waste produced by factories

Example: Many species of fish are endangered as a result of the toxic waste dumped by industries into the rivers and the sea.

  • the green movement: các phong trào yêu cầu giải quyết các vấn đề về môi trường

Meaning: all the organizations concerned with the protection of the environment

Example: Individuals should join one of the organisations which form part of the green movement, in order to campaign for changes in official policy on the environment.

2. Một số bài viết mẫu chủ đề Environment


Đề 1: “Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today. What are the causes of global warming and what measures can governments and individuals take to tackle the issue?”

One of the most pressing environmental issues which is posing a serious threat to the world is global warming. This essay will look at some primary causes of this and suggest several possible solutions to this problem.

There are a number of reasons why the earth is getting warmer than ever before. The first reason is the levels of greenhouse gases released from power plants to the air are rising at alarming rates. This leads to an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, acting as a roof of a greenhouse, trapping heat and causing global warming. Another reason for rising global temperatures is deforestation. It is widely known that trees help absorb carbon dioxide in the air and thus reduce climate change. However, with large areas of forests being cut down for different purposes, carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases will continue to rise, contributing to global warming.

There are various measures that could be implemented to tackle the problem of global warming. First, it is necessary for the government to encourage power stations and plants to use more environmentally-friendly energy sources such as nuclear or renewable energy instead of fossil fuels. Second, stricter punishments should be imposed for illegal logging and forest clearance to make sure that forests are properly managed and protected. As individuals, we can help mitigate global warming by planting more trees in our gardens or taking part in environmental protection programmes such as community planting. By taking these actions, this problem would be properly tackled.

In conclusion, there are various factors leading to global warming and steps need to be taken to address this serious issue.

(Written by Nguyen Huyen)

Đề 2: "Explain some of the ways in which humans are damaging the environment. What can governments do to address these problems? What can individual people do?"

Humans are responsible for a variety of environmental problems, but we can also take steps to reduce the damage that we are causing to the planet. This essay will discuss environmental problems and the measures that governments and individuals can take to address these problems.

Two of the biggest threats to the environment are air pollution and waste. Gas emissions from factories and exhaust fumes from vehicles lead to global warming, which may have a devastating effect on the planet in the future. As the human population increases, we are also producing ever greater quantities of waste, which contaminates the earth and pollutes rivers and oceans.

Governments could certainly make more effort to reduce air pollution. They could introduce laws to limit emissions from factories or to force companies to use renewable energy from solar, wind or water power. They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and to take fewer flights abroad, therefore reducing emissions.

Individuals should also take responsibility for the impact they have on the environment. They can take public transport rather than driving, choose products with less packaging, and recycle as much as possible. Most supermarkets now provide reusable bags for shoppers as well as ‘banks’ for recycling glass, plastic and paper in their car parks. By reusing and recycling, we can help to reduce waste.

In conclusion, both national governments and individuals must play their part in looking after the environment.

Một số đề bài khác

  • “Overpopulation of urban areas has led to numerous problems. Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that governments and individuals can tackle these problems.”
  • “Logging of the rain forests is a serious problem and it may lead to the extinction of animal life and human life. To what extent to you agree of disagree?”
  • “Developed countries have created many environmental problems in the World, particularly in their contribution to global warming. Why is global warming a problem? What can be done to reduce the dangers of global warming?”

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