Chủ đề Crime and Punishment là chủ đề khá hóc búa và thường xuyên xuất hiện trong kỳ thi IELTS. Cùng học từ vựng chủ đề này qua bộ từ vựng IELTS LangGo giới thiệu trong bài viết dưới đây nhé! Chúc các bạn học tốt!
1. Từ vựng IELTS Ngọc Bách chủ đề Crime and Punishment
- crime of passion: niềm đam mê phạm tội, đặc biệt là chỉ những kẻ giết người
Meaning: refers to a crime, especially murder, caused by sexual jealousy
Example: People who carry out crimes of passion often regret their actions later, when they reflect on what they have done.
- to serve a prison sentence: chấp hành án phạt tù
Meaning: to carry out confinement in prison as a punishment
Example: They are serving long prison sentences for their part in the assassination.
- to turn to crime/ drugs: bắt đầu phạm tội
Meaning: To start committing crimes or using drugs.
Example: During periods of high youth unemployment, some youngsters turn to crime to obtain money.
- to be tough on crime: xử phạt tội phạm rất nặng
Meaning: To punish crime severely
Example: The crime rate is likely to fall if governments take strong measures to be tough on crime.
- to contest the verdict: phản đối quyết định của tòa án/ kháng án
Meaning: not agree with the decision of the jury after the trial of a case Example: In many countries, the accused person has the right to contest the verdict which was reached in the court.
- to take into consideration: cân nhắc, tính đến một yếu tố nào đấy trước khi quyết định
Meaning: to think about a particular fact or detail and allow it to have some influence when you are making a decision
Example: The previous criminal records of those who are found guilty must be taken into consideration when a sentence is passed.
- to reintegrate back into society/ community: cải tạo lại thông qua giáo dục hay các liệu pháp tâm lý
Meaning: to restore someone through education or therapy
Example: There is an increasing focus among policy-makers and practitioners on identifying programs and strategies that will help prisoners successfully reintegrate back into their communities without re- offending.
- to be soft on crime: không áp đặt các hình phạt nặng lên tội phạm
Meaning: not to impose strictpunishments on offenders
Example: In order to deter criminals effectively, governments must not follow policies which are soft on crime.
- a policy of zero tolerance: chính sách áp dụng luật nghiêm khắc, vì thế nên các hành động bất hợp pháp sẽ bị trừng phạt dù cho nó không quá nghiêm trọng
Meaning: a policy of applying laws very strictly, so that every illegal action is punished, even if it is not very serious
Example: I would argue that the most effective way to reduce crime is to implement a policy of zero tolerance.
- a chance of rehabilitation: cơ hội tái hòa nhập cộng đồng, trở về cuộc sống bình thường sau khi ra tù
Meaning: a chance of helping someone to have a normal life after serving a prison sentence
Example: We should give ex-offerders a chance of rehabilitation and teach them how to become useful members of society.
- to embark on something: bắt đầu cái gì đó mới
Meaning: To start something new
Example: Young people sometimes embark on a life of crime as a result of the bad influence of criminals whom they know.
- to make a fresh start: thử cái gì mới sau khi phạm lỗi trong cuộc đời
Meaning: to try something new after making mistakes in one’s life
Example: I believe that people should have the opportunity to make a fresh start after they are released from prison.
- to act as a deterrent: biện pháp ngăn chặn mọi người làm gì đó
Meaning: a measure which makes somebody less likely to do something
Example: Longer prison sentences would act as a deterrentand would be one useful measure to tackle rising crime.
- to release back into society: ra tù (để nói đến các tù nhân hết hạn chịu án phạt tù)
Meaning: to give freedom to prisonerswho have finished their sentences.
Example: He was released back into societyafter serving two years of a five-year sentence.
- corporal punishment: hình phạt về thể xác
Meaning: to punish by physically harming the offender
Example: Many schools have abandoned the policy of corporal punishment for children who misbehave and prefer to give extra work or detention after school instead.
- drug trafficking: buôn bán ma túy
Meaning: importing and selling illegal drugs
Example: Some people argue that legalising drugs would put an end to the evil of drug trafficking and the violence associated with it.
- a non-custodial sentence: hình phạt không phải ở tù
Meaning: a sentence which is not served in prison
Example: There is a wide range of non custodial sentences which a court may give to offenders, including: fines, probation orders or community service orders.
- to be found guilty: bị tòa tuyên án có tội
Meaning: the court decided that the person did commit the crime
Example: If people are found guilty of committing serious offences, heavy punishments should be imposed.
- the full weight of the law: hình phạt nặng nhất theo luật
Meaning: all the strictest punishments available according to the laws of a country.
Example: In order to deter crime, the full weight of the law must be imposed for all serious offences.
- to impose a ban on sth: ban hành luật, chính sách
Meaning: to enforce an official rule which says that something is not allowed
Example: Most governments have imposed a ban on the sale of tobacco to those aged under 16.
- to convict a criminal: kết án tội phạm
Meaning: to find an offender guilty and to punish them
Example: Once the courts have convicted a criminal, the punishment should be severe.
- law-abiding citizens: công dân tuân thủ pháp luật
Meaning: people who obey and respect the law
Example: The government could take some effective steps to protect law- abiding citizens.
- to enforce the law: thực thi pháp luật
Meaning: to make sure that the law is obeyed
Example: The role of the police and the courts is to enforce the law.
- capital punishment: hình phạt tử hình
Meaning: punishment by death
Example: In some states of America, those who commit murder are sometimes sentenced to capital punishment.
- forensic evidence: bằng chứng pháp y
Meaning: connected with the scientific tests conducted by the police when investigating a crime
Example: Modern police methods include the use of forensic evidence, such as DNA samples, to investigate crimes.
- to instal surveillance cameras: đặt camera giám sát
Meaning: to put cameras in a place where a crime is likely to be committed
Example: The security company has installed surveillance cameras at all the entrances and exits of the shopping mall.
- to put on probation: đưa vào quản chế
Meaning: to make a convicted person see an official at regular intervals to check on their good behavior, as an alternative to going to prison
Example: The young offender was put on probation, as his crime was not serious enough to send him to prison.
- to punish wrongdoers: phạt ai đó làm điều sai trái
Meaning: to punish people who do something illegal
Example: Stricter measures must be introduced by governments to punish wrongdoers.
- to arrest suspects: bắt giữ kẻ tình nghi
Meaning: to stop and hold people who the police think may have committed a crime
Example: The government should give the police greater powers to arrest suspects.
- the letter of the law: lời văn của luật pháp
Meaning: the exact wording of the law, without considering any excuses
Example: I believe that the courts must apply the strict letter of the law and impose the harshest possible sentences on criminals.
2. Một số bài viết mẫu chủ đề Crime and Punishment
Ví dụ 1:
“Crime is a big problem in the world; many believe that nothing can be done to prevent it. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give your own opinion.”
Crime is unquestionably one of the most prevailing and worrying aspects in any society, and its prevention should be taken seriously. Crime prevention can be executed in various ways, firstly through a sustained honest presence in the community and secondly through international cooperation.
A local presence by incorruptible law enforcement authorities may be costly, however, the long-term investment would pay dividends in the future. A safer region would encourage trade, investment and set an invaluable example for younger generations. For example, crime has dramatically been reduced in the Favelas around Rio de Janiero in Brazil. This was achieved largely through the government committing large funds of money to stationing police headquarters in and around the slums. These financial expenditures greatly benefited the community.
Secondly, due to the large-scale severity and the global impact that crime has in some areas of the world, global cooperation is critical. Operating in a different way would incur significant financial losses and render any expenditure futile. For example, Somalian pirates in Africa have reigned terror amongst many ocean transport companies in the area. Only through large-scale international cooperation was policing the area possible. Therefore, crime reduction can be attributed to a joint effort between countries.
To conclude, illegal activities are a costly and dangerous fact in the present global economy; however, through large-scale government investment prevention is an attainable goal. Also, spreading the expense through international cooperation the resources invested can be significantly more effective in reducing criminals’ effectiveness abroad.
Ví dụ 2:
“Crime is a problem all over the world and there is nothing that can be done to prevent it. Agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.”
Crime is one of the major issues that all the countries have been facing recently. Some people believe that there is nothing that can be done to prevent crime. I completely disagree with this opinion and feel that crime rate can be controlled with appropriate measures.
On one side of the argument, there are some people who believe that crime cannot be regulated. According to them, criminals prevail all over the world and they try to commit various illegal activities. No matter how many prevention measures are taken by the individuals and the government, several people make their daily living through activities like robbery, theft, murder, hate crimes, and others.
On the other hand, there are people who argue that crime can be prevented. The government needs to frame strict rules to control crime. Also, there should be fear of punishment. For example, the crime in the US is just 2% whereas in Somalia it is 50% and the main reason is strict rules in the US. Apart from the government, individuals can contribute to preventing crime through strict family values and monitoring their children on a daily basis. Thus it cannot go without saying that crime cannot be prevented.
After having discussed the pertinent points related to the issue, I feel that the only logical conclusion is that crime can be prevented through appropriate action by the government and individuals.
Ví dụ 3:
“Many offenders commit more crimes after serving the first punishment. Why is this happening, and what measures can be taken to tackle this problem?”
It is true that some criminals commit crimes again after they have been punished. While there are several reasons for this alarming trend, some effective measures can be taken by governments to tackle this problem.
There are two main reasons for re-offenders. Firstly, the prison system can make the situation worse. Criminals put together in prison and they make friends with other offenders. While they are locked up in prison, they do not have much to do there, and they would exchange information about what they have done before they came to the prison or they may plan crimes with other inmates. Secondly, offenders often do not have any other means of earning money. They are poor, uneducated and lacking skills needed to maintain a job. Also, a criminal record makes finding a job difficult as people usually avoid hiring people with criminal background.
To solve this problem, governments should focus on rehabilitation of criminals rather than punishment. Above all, prisons need vocational training which allows inmates to prepare for life outside the prison. They can learn practical skills such as computer programming, car maintenance and graphic design. In this way, they can be hired for a position that requires this certain knowledge and skills. Community service is another way to reform offenders. Rather than being locked up in prison with other inmates, offenders can help society and become useful to their local community, and these activities would eliminate the negative influence that prisons can have.
In conclusion, it is true the recidivism is one of the problems for our community; it can be solved by focusing on rehabilitation rather than punishment itself.