Liên từ trong tiếng Anh (Conjunctions) là một trong những chủ điểm quan trọng, thường xuyên được nhắc đến trong ngữ pháp tiếng Anh. Liên từ trong câu đóng vai trò liên kết các cụm từ, các câu và các đoạn văn. Trong tiếng Anh giao tiếp hay tiếng Anh học thuật đều sử dụng liên từ giúp kết nối độ mạch lạc và trôi chảy của bài nói hoặc bài viết tiếng Anh. Dưới đây, LangGo sẽ cung cấp cho bạn tất tần tật về các liên từ thông dụng: phân loại, ý nghĩa, ví dụ và bài tập thực hành để bạn học tiếng Anh dễ dàng và hiệu quả.
1. SO + adj/adv + THAT + clause
SUCH + noun + THAT + clause (trong văn nói có thể lược bỏ THAT)
Ex: He was SO tired THAT he went to bed early.
It was SUCH a difficult exam (THAT) he knew he wouldn’t pass it.
2. SO + clause
Ex: It was late, SO he decided to take a taxi home.
3. AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY có thể dùng để mở đầu câu.
AND, AS A RESULT được dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong một câu.
Ex: We have invested too much money in this project. CONSEQUENTLY, we are in financial difficulties.
His wife left him, AND/AS A RESULT, he became very depressed.
4. THEREFORE thường được dùng ở giữa câu (ngoài ra cũng có thể dùng ở đầu hoặc cuối câu)
Ex: We feel, THEREFORE, that a decision must be made.
1. SINCE/AS/SEEING THAT + clause (đứng trước mệnh đề chính)
Ex: SEEING THAT/SINCE/AS we arrived late, all the best seats had been taken.
2. BECAUSE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính)
Ex: We couldn’t find a good seat BECAUSE all the best ones had been taken.
3. BECAUSE OF/AS A RESULT OF/OWING TO/DUE TO + noun/noun phrase.
Ex: We were unable to go by train BECAUSE OF the rail strike.
Many of the deaths of older people are DUE TO heart attacks.
1. (NOT) TO/IN ODER (NOT) TO/SO AS (NOT) TO + verb nguyên mẫu
Notice: trong văn viết (formal) không nên dùng (NOT) TO
Ex: We came to the countryside TO find some peace and quiet.
Handle the flowers carefully IN ORDER NOT TO damage them.
2. SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT + clause (thường dùng can, could, might, would)
Ex: He chose this university SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT he could study Physics.
1. ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH + clause (even though chỉ dùng trong văn nói)
Ex: ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH the car is old, it is still reliable.
2. DESPITE/IN SPITE OF + noun/noun phrase/V_ing
DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT + clause
Ex: DESPITE/IN SPITE OF the rain, I went for a walk.
We enjoyed our walking holiday DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT it was tiring.
3. HOWEVER + clause
THOUGH thường dùng trong văn nói, và đứng ở cuối câu.
Ex: Buying a house is expensive. It is, HOWEVER, a good investment.
It’s a big decision to make, THOUGH.
4. BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS thường dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong câu.
Ex: John is very rich BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS his friends are extremely poor.
5. ON THE ONE HAND/ON THE OTHER HAND dùng cho một cặp câu diễn tả 2 ý trái ngược nhau.
Ex: ON THE ONE HAND these computers are expensive. ON THE OTHER HAND they are exactly what we want.
1. WHEN/WHILE/AS/AFTER + clause
Ex: WHEN/WHILE/AS I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident.
He went out AFTER he’d finished work.
2. WHENEVER/EVERY TIME + clause
Ex: WHENEVER/EVERY TIME I see him, he’s driving a different car.
3. FIRST/THEN/LATER etc. dùng để giới thiệu những mốc thời gian.
Ex: FIRST he closed all the windows, THEN he locked the doors. LATER he came back to check that everything was all right.
4. DURING/ALL THROUGH/THROUGHOUT + noun phrase.
Ex: DURING/ALL THROUGH the summer we get a lot of visitors.
It rained heavily THROUGHOUT the night.
1. EVEN IF/AS LONG AS/UNLESS + clause
Ex: EVEN IF you are born rich, life is still difficult.
You can borrow the car AS LONG AS you’re careful with it.
You can’t come with me UNLESS you promise to keep quiet.
2. WHETHER… OR NOT được dùng làm câu hỏi gián tiếp.
Sau giới từ và/hoặc trước động từ TO V chúng ta sử dụng WHETHER chứ không dùng IF.
Ex: I don’t know WHETHER you have met him OR NOT.
It depends ON WHETHER the government takes any action.
The organizers will decide WHETHER TO IMPOSE fines.
3. IN CASE + clause
IN CASE OF + noun (dùng trong văn viết)
Ex: Take this umbrella IN CASE it rains.
IN CASE OF emergency, break the glass.
1. BESIDES/IN ADDITION (TO THAT)/FURTHERMORE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính). Trong văn viết nên dùng FURTHERMORE.
MOREOVER được dùng ở đầu hoặc giữa câu nhằm đưa thêm thông tin.
Ex: I don’t really want to go out tonight. BESIDES, there’s a good film on TV.
We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago. FURTHERMORE, we have been overcharged for our last order.
This theory about the origins of the universe is new. It is, MOREOVER, extremely interesting.
2. NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO/AS WELL
Notice: BUT ALSO + noun/noun phrase; BUT + S + V + ALSO
NOT ONLY khi đứng đầu câu sẽ mang ý nghĩa nhấn mạnh, sử dụng cấu trúc này cần đảo ngữ cho vế NOT ONLY và vế còn lại sẽ dùng BUT + S + V + ALSO.
Ex: The painting is NOT ONLY valuable BUT ALSO a work of art.
She NOT ONLY writes novels BUT (she) lectures AS WELL.
The house was NOT ONLY large BUT (was/it was) ALSO modern.
NOT ONLY is the restaurant superb BUT it is ALSO expensive.
3. AS WELL AS + noun/phrase/V_ing
Ex: They robbed a bank AS WELL AS a post office.
AS WELL AS being sent to prison, they were fined $2000.
4. TOO/AS WELL/NOT EITHER thường dùng trong văn nói, và đặt ở cuối mệnh đề phụ.
Ex: They like Indian food. I like Indian food TOO/AS WELL.
They aren’t very generous people. They have NOT got any friends EITHER.
Bài tập 1: Chọn đáp án đúng
1. She's not only beautiful_________ intelligent.
a. but also b. but c. however d. yet
2. I was very tired, ________ I determined to walk on to the next village.
a. therefore b. however c. and d. or
3. You can come here either on Monday__________ on Friday.
a. or b. nor c. both d. and
4. He had to act immediately; ________ he would have been too late.
a. consequently b. nevertheless c. still d. otherwise
5. They said both he_________ I were to come.
a. and b. but c. or d. so
6. The weather in Dalat is neither too hot in summer________ too cold in winter.
a. or b. nor c. or else d. otherwise
7. Jane is beautiful and intelligent________
a. too b. so c. both d. moreover
8. Jane is beautiful and intelligent; ________ she's very kind.
a. moreover b. however c. for all that d. on the other hand
9. He never works_______ he gains all the prizes.
a. furthermore b. whereas c. but d. accordingly
10. The sun is shining and there are very few clouds; _______, I am sure it is going to rain.
a. what's more b. hence c. thus d. nevertheless
11. Bill is in class 12, _______ John, who is a year older, is only in class 4.
a. and b. whereas c. either d. nevertheless
12. You must leave at once, ________ you miss the train.
a. however b. yet c. still d. otherwise
13. You need to get some job retraining. _______ it, you risk being laid off.
a. If so b. If not c. With d. Without
14. Could I have rice_______ potatoes, please?
a. but b. but also c. instead d. instead of
15. _______His denial, we knew that he was guilty.
a. Despite b. In spite c. Because d. And
16. John's family is very happy_______his being a warded a scholarship.
a. because of b. if c. either d. nor
17. Graphite is a soft, slippery solid that is a good conductor of_______ hear and electricity.
a. not just b. and c. both d. moreover
18. The lecture was _______ interesting and instructive.
a. as b. either c. neither d. both
19. Both Mary and Allen_______Jean are going on the tour.
a. as well b. as well as c. nor d. but
20. He likes travel, and_______ does she.
a. too b. such c. so d. but
Bài tập 2: Điền một liên từ thích hợp vào chỗ trống để tạo thành một bài nói hoàn chỉnh.
The person that I gave it to was a very good friend of mine at the time. His name was Kaliya (1)__________ he came from India. I knew him (2)_________ we studied together at a language school in Cambridge. (3)____________ we were from different backgrounds and cultures, we got on really well and we had the same sense of humor (4)___________ we became very good friends.
The present was a picture that had been painted of the River Cam in Cambridge. It was not so big - maybe around 10 inches by 14 inches, but it was very beautiful. It came in a gold plated frame and the picture had been drawn by a particularly well-known Cambridge artist. It had been signed by this person as well.
It’s the first time I have given this person a present, and I guess it’s quite different from presents (5)_________ I have given to other people before – I don’t recall ever giving someone a picture actually. If I’m buying for family then I’ll usually buy clothes or maybe some jewelry if it is a special occasion. Normally when I’ve bought something for friends it’s something more jokey so we can have a laugh about it, nothing that serious.
The reason (6)_________ I decided to give this particular gift is because we had spent a lot of time together in Cambridge and we had had some really fun times punting on the River Cam – that’s obviously why I thought this was an appropriate present. We used to go punting at least once a week, sometimes a couple of times. On one occasion there was a group of about ten of us that went down there, and we spent the whole day sitting by the river in the sun (7)__________ as usual we went on a boat trip together. We all have a lot of photos to remind us of this great day.
So my friend, Kaaliya, is the person that I gave a present to and this was because I felt it would always remind him of the fun times that we had and also of Cambridge.
Bài tập 1:
Bài tập 2:
2. because/ as/ since
3. Though/ Although
Tìm hiểu thêm các chủ đề ngữ pháp tiếng Anh thông dụng: